Course Outline (W2024)

ELE806: Alternative Energy Systems

Instructor(s)Dr. David Xu [Coordinator]
Office: ENG320
Phone: (416) 979-5000 x 556075
Office Hours: Wednesday 3-5PM
Calendar DescriptionThe topics include introduction to alternative energy systems, power converters for renewable energies, wind energy system fundamentals, wind generators, doubly fed induction generator based wind turbines, synchronous generator based wind generation systems, control schemes, transient and steady-state analysis, solar energy systems, photovoltaic arrays, and maximum power point tracking schemes. Other alternative energy systems will also be introduced.
PrerequisitesELE 747




Compulsory Text(s):
  1. Power Conversion and Control of Wind Energy Systems, B. Wu, Y. Lang, N. Zargari, and S. Kouro, Wiley-IEEE Press, 480 pages, 2011, ISBN 978-0- 470-59365- 3
  2. ELE806 Course Notes: Available on D2L
  3. ELE806 Laboratory Manuals: Available on D2L
Reference Text(s):
Learning Objectives (Indicators)  

At the end of this course, the successful student will be able to:

  1. Use specialized core knowledge of power electronics, electric machines, and control theory to understand and design 1) a wind energy conversion system using squirrel induction generator, doubly-fed induction generator, or synchronous generator, and 2) a photovoltaic (PV) energy conversion system with maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control. (1d)
  2. Generate solutions for the design of PWM switching schemes, grid-side power factor compensation, PI compensator, maximum power point tracking (MPPT), and control schemes for various wind and solar energy systems with a give set of design requirements. (4b)
  3. Use of MATLAB/SIMULINK tool extensively to Investigate and solve complex problems in wind and solar energy systems, including analysis and modeling of fixed and variable-speed wind energy systems and solar energy systems with partial shading problems. (5a)
  4. Use the engineering knowledge and consider the environmental factors in the solutions. The measures include the impacts of renewable energy systems to the society and sustainable development. (9a)

NOTE:Numbers in parentheses refer to the graduate attributes required by the Canadian Engineering Accreditation Board (CEAB).

Course Organization

3.0 hours of lecture per week for 13 weeks
1.0 hours of lab per week for 12 weeks
0.0 hours of tutorial per week for 12 weeks

Teaching AssistantsTBA
Course Evaluation
Midterm 25 %
Final Exam 45 %
Laboratory: 6 Labs 5% Each 30 %
TOTAL:100 %

Note: In order for a student to pass a course, a minimum overall course mark of 50% must be obtained. In addition, for courses that have both "Theory and Laboratory" components, the student must pass the Laboratory and Theory portions separately by achieving a minimum of 50% in the combined Laboratory components and 50% in the combined Theory components. Please refer to the "Course Evaluation" section above for details on the Theory and Laboratory components (if applicable).

ExaminationsMidterm exam is scheduled for the #7 week (3 Hrs duration), closed book with a formula sheet (covers Weeks 1-6 of
 lecture and laboratory material)
 Final Exam, during exam period, 3 hours, closed book with a formula sheet (covers Weeks 8-13 of lecture and rest of
 laboratory material).
Other Evaluation InformationNOTE: To achieve a passing grade, student must pass both the theory and laboratory components.
 Lab experiments are to be done in partners and the write-ups are handed to your TA during the scheduled lab
 time as indicated on the course content schedule.
Other InformationNone

Course Content



Chapters /

Topic, description



State-of- the-art wind energy systems wind  turbine technology wind energy conversion fixed-speed and variable-speed wind energy systems grid codes power factor compensation.
 (Chapters 1 textbook)



Wind turbine components turbine power characteristics turbine modeling passive and active stall controls pitch control tip speed ratio maximum power point tracking schemes.
 (Chapters 2 textbook)



Reference frame transformation induction generators (IG) IG dynamic and steady state models synchronous generators (SG) SG dynamic and steady state models transient and steady state analysis of wind generators.
 (Chapters 3 textbook)



AC voltage controllers multi-channel interleaved boost converters voltage source converters control of grid-tied converters reactive power control.
 (Chapter 4 textbook)



System configurations operating principle of fixed-speed IG WECS soft starter reactive power compensation.
 (Chapter 6 textbook)



System configuration direct field oriented control (FOC) rotor flux identification system dynamic analysis steady state calculations.
 (Chapter 7 textbook)






System configuration zero d-axis current (ZDC) control maximum torque per ampere (MTPA) control unit power factor (UPF) control transient and steady state analysis.
 (Chapter 9 textbook)



System configurations super- and sub-synchronous modes of operation stator voltage oriented control (SVOC)
 (Chapter 8 textbook)



DFIG dynamic and steady state models system dynamic and steady state analysis.
 (Chapter 8 textbook)



Photovoltaic (PV) arrays PV cell modeling partial shading effect standalone and grid-tied PV systems;



PV power converter systems maximum power point tracking (MPPT) schemes. (Course Notes posted on D2L)



Introduction to tidal and wave energy systems.

Laboratory(L)/Tutorials(T)/Activity(A) Schedule





Lab 1

Lab 1 - Modeling and Simulation of Fixed-Speed Wind Turbines
   - Implement the fixed-speed wind turbine model for induction generator based WECS
   - Study the power and torque curves for wind turbine and
   - Investigate the pitch angle control system.


Lab 2

Lab 2 - Modeling and Simulation of Induction Generators
   - Implement the squirrel-cage induction generator (SCIG) in arbitrary reference frame
   - Investigate the dynamic response of SCIG with direct grid connection and
   - Compare the response of SCIG model with Sim-Power-Systems model.


Lab 3

Lab 3 - Decoupled Voltage Oriented Control of Grid-Tied Inverters
   - Understand the principle of VOC with a decoupling controller for grid-tied inverter
   - Design the sinusoidal pulse width modulation scheme for grid-tied inverter and
   - Investigate the active and reactive power control with the grid-tied inverter.


Lab 4

Lab 4 - Fixed-Speed Induction Generator based WECS
   - Implement the fixed-speed squirrel-cage induction generator based WECS
   - Investigate the dynamic response of SCIG WECS with direct grid connection and soft start and
   - Design and implement reactive power compensation scheme for fixed-speed WECS.


Lab 5

Lab 5 - Zero d-axis Current (ZDC) Control of PMSG WECS
   - Design the ZDC control for variable-speed direct-drive non-salient pole PMSG WECS
   - Design the sinusoidal pulse width modulation scheme for generator-side converter and
   - Investigate study the dynamic performance of PMSG WECS during start-up.


Lab 6

Lab 6 – Investigation of Photovoltaic Panel Characteristics
   - Modeling of PV arrays
   - Understand the principle of PV array operation and
   - Understand the temperature and irradiance effect on PV array output

University Policies & Important Information

Students are reminded that they are required to adhere to all relevant university policies found in their online course shell in D2L and/or on the Senate website

Refer to the Departmental FAQ page for furhter information on common questions.

Important Resources Available at Toronto Metropolitan University


Academic Accommodation Support

Academic Accommodation Support (AAS) is the university's disability services office. AAS works directly with incoming and returning students looking for help with their academic accommodations. AAS works with any student who requires academic accommodation regardless of program or course load.

Academic Accommodations (for students with disabilities) and Academic Consideration (for students faced with extenuating circumstances that can include short-term health issues) are governed by two different university policies. Learn more about Academic Accommodations versus Academic Consideration and how to access each.

Wellbeing Support

At Toronto Metropolitan University, we recognize that things can come up throughout the term that may interfere with a student’s ability to succeed in their coursework. These circumstances are outside of one’s control and can have a serious impact on physical and mental well-being. Seeking help can be a challenge, especially in those times of crisis.

If you are experiencing a mental health crisis, please call 911 and go to the nearest hospital emergency room. You can also access these outside resources at anytime:

If non-crisis support is needed, you can access these campus resources:

We encourage all Toronto Metropolitan University community members to access available resources to ensure support is reachable. You can find more resources available through the Toronto Metropolitan University Mental Health and Wellbeing website.